Addressing Illegal Fishing and Labor Abuses
Millions of tons of fish are stolen from the ocean each year. Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing imposes huge economic losses on coastal and fishing nations – estimated in the tens of billions of dollars. It is an even greater threat to food security – nearly one billion people rely on fish as their main source of protein. In many of the countries that are most dependent, one fish in three is stolen. IUU fishing defeats governments’ efforts to manage their resources and undercuts the millions of fishers who are playing by the rules.
Fishing vessels engaged in IUU fishing often engage in labor abuses including, exploitation, forced labor, debt bondage, human trafficking, and modern slavery. Crews can be trapped at sea for months or years at a time, working in grueling conditions and sometimes facing wanton brutality. Wages are withheld or simply never paid. While there are not reliable global statistics on the extent of labor abuse in the seafood sector, civil society organizations, researchers and investigative journalists are increasingly demonstrating that abuse is more widespread than previously thought.
IUU fishing and labor abuses therefore exist at the intersection of an environmental emergency and a human rights crisis. Addressing these issues requires interdisciplinary, novel, and collaborative policy solutions that engage a multitude of stakeholders – governments, companies, conservation groups, communities, and workers - in mobilizing action to combat these abuses. Here’s what we’re doing:
Addressing Labor Abuses in Fisheries
COS and the Stanford Center for Human Rights and International Justice are working together to address labor abuses in the tuna sector. Labor abuses encompass everything from substandard working conditions to modern slavery and can occur at all phases of the fishery supply chain, from fishing vessels to processing to distribution. Together, we are building a collaboration with leading researchers, the ISSF and some of its member companies, the Indonesia Ocean Justice Initiative and other partners to develop tools that increase transparency and accountability in the recruitment of workers for tuna vessels.
Addressing Illegal Fishing
COS is working with a wide array of partners to close the Pacific to illegal fishing. Working with the Friends of Ocean Action, World Economic Forum, and the Pew Charitable Trusts, COS is engaging governments in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (the 21 largest economies in the region) to advance implementation of port controls to prevent vessels that fish illegally from landing their catch. We are also working with leading seafood business groups, including SeaBOS (the 10 largest seafood companies), the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF, representing 70% of the canned tuna industry), and the Global Tuna Alliance (leading retailers), to forge a broad industry coalition committed to addressing illegal fishing in the sector. These initiatives are supported by COS research, which identifies high-risk ports for illegal fishing and elucidates the policy and legal challenges in using new data sources to enforce port controls.
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- Nakayama, S., & al., et. (2023). Comparing spatial patterns of marine vessels between vessel-tracking data and satellite imagery. Frontiers in Marine Science. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2022.1076775
- Phelan, K., Gardner, A., Selig, E., & Sparks, J. (2022). Towards a model of port-based resilience against fisher labour exploitation. Marine Policy, 142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2022.105108
- Selig, E., & et al, . (2022). Revealing global risks of labor abuse and illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing. Nature Communications, 13, 1612. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28916-2