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Currently, research in Professor Denny's laboratory centers on the mechanical design of intertidal organisms. This subject is studied at many different levels of organization, from the molecular through the material, structural and organismal to the ecological. Of particular interest is the role of hydrodynamic forces in determining mechanical design. Transducers have been developed to measure water velocities and accelerations and the forces imposed on intertidal plants and animals. Properties such as the adhesive tenacities of the organisms are measured. These data then provide a method for calculating the mechanical limits to size, the "safety factors" used by limpets and barnacles, and the potential "disturbability" of these organisms as a function of season, wave height and microhabitat. The biological interactions among intertidal organisms have been well studied, and Professor Denny's approach promises interesting insights into the importance of mechanical factors in intertidal ecology and in the evolution of invertebrates and macroalgae.

Denny received his Ph.D. from the University of British Columbia. He has worked out the molecular biomechanics of some molluscan mucus secretions, and the consequences for the structure and motion of gastropods.

Contact Information:
Email: mwdenny@stanford.edu
Phone: (831) 655-6207
Website: http://hopkins.stanford.edu/denny.htm

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As a biological oceanographer at Stanford University, Kevin Arrigo's principal interest has been in the role marine microalgae play in biogeochemical cycling, with particular emphasis on the scales of temporal and spatial variability of microalgal biomass and productivity. This knowledge is essential to understanding how anthropogenic and atmospheric forcing controls the biogenic flux of CO2 into the oceans, and ultimately, to the sediments. 

Kevin has been recognized many times for his professional achievements, including being honored as a 2009 Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellowship at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment and the 2008 Excellence in Teaching Award from the School of Earth Sciences.  He is a current member of the Board of Governors for Ocean Leadership (alternate), the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), Oceans Working Group, the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH), Understanding Change Panel (UCP), and Review Editor for Aquatic Biology. 

Kevin received his B.S. in Natural Resources University of Michigan and his Ph.D. in Biology from the University of Southern California. 

Contact information:
Email: arrigo@stanford.edu
Phone: (650) 723-3599
Website: http://ocean.stanford.edu/arrigo/

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John Lynham is an affiliated researcher with the Center for Ocean Solutions and an Assistant Professor in the Economics Department at the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, where he is also a Research Fellow at the Economic Research Organization at the University of Hawai’i (UHERO). John has held regular Visiting Professor appointments in the Economics Department and the Program in Human Biology at Stanford. His research interests include environmental and resource economics, experimental economics, behavioral economics, and marine ecology. As part of the Center’s coastal adaptation work, John is conducting economic analyses on the impact of coastal armoring on coastal property values.

John’s work has grown out of his interests in the intersection between marine ecology and economics. His publications include research on catch shares, ecomarkets, and political economics of fisheries. After receiving his B.A. in Economics from Trinity College, University of Dublin, John went on to earn an M.A. in Economics, an M.A. in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, and a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he was in the NSF/IGERT Economics and Environmental Science Training Program. 

Contact Information:
Email: lynham@hawaii.edu

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Jim Barry studies factors that influence the structure and function of marine biological communities.  The current focus of Jim’s lab at MBARI is the influence of changing ocean chemistry and temperature on marine ecosystems (the biology of a high-CO2 ocean).  Current studies include laboratory and in situ studies of the physiological response of shallow and deep-sea organisms to ocean acidification, hypoxia, and warming – all factors linked to atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. Other topics range from the role of Monterey Canyon in the transport of materials across the continental margin, as well as its influence on canyon ecosystems, the ecology of chemosynthetic communities, links between climate changes and the ecosystem in the Ross Sea of Antarctica, and the biological effects of direct carbon dioxide sequestration in the deep-sea.  

Jim was recipient of the 2008 Ricketts Memorial Award; a 1998 Pew Fellowship nominee, an ARCS fellow at the University of California, San Diego (1986); University of California Sea Grant Trainee-ship (1982-1984); a Scripps Industrial Associates Fellowship (1981) and an Antarctic Service Medal recipient (1971).  Jim received his BA in Zoology and his MA in Biology (Marine science/wetlands biology) from San Jose State University and his Ph.D. in Oceanography form the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, La Jolla.

Contact information:
Email: barry@mbari.org
Phone: (831) 775-1726
Website: http://www.mbari.org/staff/barry/

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George N. Somero was part of the team that developed the original proposal to create the Center for Ocean Solutions (COS). Somero received his Ph.D. from Stanford University. His group studies the effects of environmental factors – such as temperature, salinity, hydrostatic pressure and oxygen availability – on marine animals. Their studies of molecular evolution focus on macromolecular adaptations, for instance, changes in protein structure that underlie adaptive variation in functional properties and stability, and "micromolecular" adaptations which provide the appropriate intracellular milieu for macromolecular function. Studies of short-term responses to environmental change use DNA microarray technology to follow shifts in gene expression in marine organisms.

Adaptations in proteins play critical roles in allowing organisms to colonize habitats with temperatures ranging from Antarctic cold to hot-spring heat. Professor Somero's group has shown that adaptation in orthologous forms of enzymes involves amino acid substitutions that lie outside of the active site and which cause changes in conformational flexibility of the proteins. Adaptive variation may be achieved by only a single amino acid substitution in some cases. Temperature changes of only a few degrees Centigrade are adequate to favor selection for adaptive change, a finding that is relevant to concerns about global climate change.

In the context of climate change, studies of the thermal tolerance limits of such physiological processes as protein synthesis, induction of the heat-shock response, heart function and nerve conduction are showing that certain marine species may currently live near the upper limits of their thermal tolerance ranges. Species living at high temperatures, for instance, animals from the upper intertidal zone, seem less able to adapt to warming than related species found in cooler habitats, such as the subtidal zone. On-going studies are being conducted to reveal further aspects of the effects of global warming on marine species, in an attempt to allow predictions of how this warming may affect biogeographic patterning with latitude and along vertical gradients.

The physiology of invasive species is another focus of the laboratory. Physiological differences between native and invasive congeners of marine mussels are being studied in an attempt to define what makes a species a good invader and what environmental conditions may set the limits of the invasive process. Experimental approaches include heart physiology, gene-chip analysis of transcription and protein evolution.

Professor Somero received a Guggenheim Fellowship and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Members of Professor Somero's laboratory have joined faculties at the University of California at San Diego, University of California at Santa Barbara, University of California at Davis, Arizona State University, Purdue University, The University of Florida, the University of Colorado, the University of Miami, San Francisco State University, the University of San Diego, Louisiana State University, Ottawa University, the University of Southern California, the College of William and Mary, Cal Poly-San Luis Obispo and Whitman College.

Contact Information:
Email: somero@stanford.edu
Phone: (831) 655-6243
Website: http://www-marine.stanford.edu/somero.htm

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Francisco Chavez was born and raised in Peru where he attended Markham College in Lima. Chavez has a BS from Humboldt State and a PhD from Duke University. He was one of the first scientists of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), where he has been for twenty years and serves as Senior Scientist. At MBARI he pioneered time series research and the development of new instruments and systems to make this type of research sustainable.  Chavez has authored or co-authored over 100 peer-reviewed papers, with 10 in Nature and Science. He is a past member of the National Science Foundation Geosciences Advisory Committee. He has been heavily involved in the development of the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and member of the Governing Boards of the Central and Northern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (CeNCOOS), the Pacific Coastal Ocean Observing System (PaCOOS) and the Center for Integrated Marine Technologies (CIMT). He is member of the Science Advisory Team for the California Ocean Protection Council.

Chavez is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of the Sciences, honored for distinguished research on the impact of climate variability on oceanic ecosystems and global carbon cycling. He was named Doctor Honoris Causa by the Universidad Pedro Ruiz Gallo in Peru in recognition of his distinguished scientific career and for contributing to elevate academic and cultural levels of university communities in particular and society in general.

Contact Information:
Email: chfr@mbari.org
Phone: (831) 775-1709
Website: http://www.mbari.org/staff/chfr/

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